Paul Tough - The Years That Matter Most: How College Makes or Breaks Us
The Years that Matter Most: How College Makes or Breaks Us.
Paul Tough carefully explains to us how college admissions and attendance significantly favor the super-rich and significantly make it difficult for students of color, particularly when they aren't upper-middle class individuals going to schools with upper-middle class and wealthy white students. He explains how the College Board through the S.A.T. and the A.C.T. through its administration help increase inequality.
Tough personalizes his writing with stories of individual students he has talked, as well as admissions officials and others. His writing is clear and his message well researched.
Chetty and his team found that students who attend ultraselective college in the United States are much more likely than other students to become very rich as adults. Young people who attend "Ivy Plus" institutions ...have about a one in five chance of landing, in their midthirties , among the top 1 percent of American earners, with incomes over $630,000. .... Students at community colleges, meanwhile, have about a one in three hundred chance.
Second Chetty, and his collaborators found that poor kids and rich kids who attend the same institutions are remarkably similar... . Poor students who attend Ivy Plus colleges wind up with household incomes of about $76,000 a year, on average, as young adults. Rich students who attend Ivy Plus colleges wind up earning about $88,000. ...
Third, the researches found that attending an elite college seems to produce a greater economic benefit for students who grow up poor than it does for students who grow up rich.
But that is where the happy story ends. Because the fourth major discovery made by Chetty and his colleagues was that rich and poor students are not attending the same colleges. Not at all. At Ivy Plus colleges, on average, more than two thirds of undergraduates grew up rich, and fewer than 4 percent of students grew up poor. ...
But in reality, for many young Americans, it functions as something closer to the opposite: (p.20) an obstacle to mobility , an instrument that reinforces a rigid social hierarchy and prevents them from moving beyond the circumstances of their birth.
And as Harvard grew steadily richer, so did its freshman classes.
That means that only a little more than a quarter of Princeton students in 2013 came from the bottom four quintiles- basically from every group but the rich...
But Princeton's student body is 8 percent black. Cornell's is 8 percent black. Brown's is 8 percent black. Yale's is 8 percent black. Harvard's is 8 percent black. The pattern his hard to miss.
Tough explains with a lot of examples how increasingly the Black students admitted to elite colleges come from immigrant communities, not from families with long-time residence in the U.S.
The second big conclusion Tony Jack reached in his research was that Doubly Disadvantaged students had a much rocker experience once they got to college than Privileged Poor students did. And the most stressful part of the transition wasn't the academic work (though that was stressful as well). It was their daily interactions with their fellow students
(note: Privileged - went to elite private high schools (for example) vs. poor predominantly minority public schools)
When Boekenstedt looks at all that data, his conclusion is that the nonsubmmitters' low test scores were essentially a false signal, predicting an academic disaster that never arrived.
(talking about how DePaul University made the submission of standardized testing optional and how it results in more poor students of color to get admitted to DePaul and do as well as other students at DePaul.)
a book that clearly explains the primary supporters of Donald Trump
People, Power and Profits - by Joseph Stiglitz
which clearly explains the U.S. related to economics and issues related to wealth and poverty.
Hyperlinks above are to my reviews of each of the latter books.